Vitamin B5, also known as pantothenate or pantothenic acid, is one of the B complex vitamins. Animals require it in synthesizing and metabolizing fats, carbs, and proteins as well as coenzyme-A synthesis.
Some of the sources of this water-soluble vitamin include mushrooms, lentils, avocados, milk, cabbage, eggs, legumes, liver, kidney (organ meat), sweet potatoes, yeast, whole grains, among others.
Usually, dietary sources are found in the form of acyl-CoA, CoA, or acyl carrier proteins, and once it reaches the lumen, there is hydrolysis that forms pantothenic acid.
- It is part of coenzyme A (CoA), which participates in most of the metabolic reactions in this pet’s body, including energy metabolism via oxidation of fatty acids and glucose.
- Being a part of CoA, it is involved in the synthesis of hemoglobin while it is in the form of acetyl-CoA.
- Additionally, CoA is involved in ketone bodies, fatty acids, cholesterol, acetylcholine, and vitamin D synthesis.
Deficiency and deficiency symptoms
Being a water-soluble, any diseases or conditions that result in diuresis or polyuria such as diabetes, kidney failure, or the use of IV fluids or more water intake to help clear lower urinary disease may result in vitamin B5 loss and consequently a deficiency.
Deficiency symptoms have been noted in kittens, and mainly, the intestinal tract and liver were affected.
The liver was noted to be having fatty metamorphosis and vacuolar while “giant, blunted villi were seen in some areas of the jejunum and upper ileum with the tops of the villi in some animals necrotic,” states Dms.com, i.e., lesions on small intestines.
Finally, other symptoms that may be noted include histological changes, growth failure (stunted growth with poor efficiency of feed conversion).
Supplementation and dosages
Diagnosis is by considering the various clinical signs presented as well as the measurement of pantothenic acid directly or by computer evaluation.
No toxicity incidents have been reported in cats. This report means that it has minimal side effects.
Usually, in commercial diets, this vitamin is often supplemented accounting from the fact that heat degradation does happen.
In adult cats, there has been no case of vitamin B5 requirements. However, in kittens, NRC (2006) put the required amounts to be 5.7mg per kg of diet and 4.75mg/kg of food for all cat classes to avoid deficiencies.
On the other hand, AAFCO (2007) recommended an amount of 5mg/kg of cat food for all classes of cats.
Finally, to avert possibilities of your furry friend having deficiencies, consider vitamin supplements like Life Extension Cat Mix, Felo-Form, Pet Multivitamin Powder for Dogs and Cats by Bodhi Dog, etcetera, that have this and other vital vitamins.