Sodium is one of the essential minerals that dogs need and plays many roles. It aids in controlling blood pressure and volume, maintaining the right osmotic balance between intracellular and extracellular fluids, the transmission of nerve signals, and muscle function, among others.
All dogs need sodium, commonly added to dog foods as table salt (sodium chloride), sodium selenite, sodium tripolyphosphate, nitrite, and selenite, and so on. Too little will result in canine hyponatremia (low sodium in dogs), while excessive will cause hyperkalemia.
Patients with renal failure, liver disease, heart problems like a heart murmur or congestive heart failure, high blood pressure, or aging dogs may require diets low in sodium.
Best low sodium dog foods review
If you need low sodium dog foods, typical diets low in this mineral are those for managing weight and obesity (linked to heart problems and blood pressure), heart disease, renal disease, and those for senior dogs.
Look at their guaranteed analysis to be sure. Note that the minimum sodium amount doesn’t tell you how much a specific brand has.
Secondly, the amount shouldn’t be lower than what AAFCO recommends. For adult maintenance, the minimum sodium required is 0.08% based on dry mater analysis or 20mg per 1000 kcal metabolizable energy (ME), while for growth and reproduction, the minimums are 0.3% and 80mg per 1000 kcal metabolizable energy (ME).
Below are reviews of the best dog foods low in sodium. All our data are from guaranteed analysis, or TUFT Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine, which has a list.
The value is limited to the exact flavor, type (dry or wet), as well as the intended life stage and breed size. Don’t assume a wet diet with the same formulation has the same sodium as its dry counterpart, or one for a small breed has the same as for a large dog.
1. The Honest Kitchen Dehydrated – Whole Grain Beef Recipe
Life stage: Adults and less active seniors all sizes and breeds
Dogs that require moderately restricted sodium diets stand a chance to benefit from the delicious, nutrient-dense, and premium quality Honest Kitchen Dehydrated Whole Grain Beef Recipe dry dog food. Expect a healthier dog with a better coat, higher appetites, and vitality.
- Low in sodium, i.e., it has 0.21%
- Unlike regular kibbles and canned foods, dehydration brings most of the raw and freeze-dried dog food benefits like more bioavailable nutrients, higher digestibility, better taste, original flavor, and so on.
- It is made with hormone and antibiotic-free dehydrated ranch-raised beef as its 1st ingredient and only protein source together as well as organic barley and oats.
- It is low in fats, moderate in protein, making it an excellent pick to manage weight, especially if your dog has a tendency to gain weight or you want it to cut down a bit.
- It has only Non-GMO ingredients without chemicals or preservatives and doesn’t have by-products, corn, wheat, soy or other fillers.
- All ingredient processing occurs in a human-grade food processing facility in the USA.
- Average price: $7.35 per pound
- Ingredients: Dehydrated beef, organic oats, organic barley, organic flaxseed, dehydrated potatoes, dehydrated carrots, dehydrated eggs, dried apples, dried parsley, dried cranberries, and dehydrated spinach.
- Calorie content: 3,880 kcal/kg or Cup 441 kcal.
- Guaranteed analysis: Protein: 22.5%, fat: 8.5%, crude fiber: 5.8%, moisture: 9.5%, taurine (min): 0.15%.
Besides the beef recipe, The Honest Kitchen Dehydrated – Grain Free Chicken Recipe (Force) is a good alternative that is equally low in sodium, standing at 0.21%,
2. Hill’s Science Diet Adult Sensitive Stomach & Skin Dog Food Chicken Recipe
Life stage: Adult maintenance
Hill’s Science Diet Adult Sensitive Stomach & Skin is an ideal choice of dry dog food that has a sensitive stomach and requires moderate sodium restriction. Dogs love it.
- Nutritive, highly digestible dog food with chicken as the 1st ingredient, it doesn’t have chicken by-product meal and has vitamins, minerals & amino acids.
- It will boost immunity, thanks to the added vitamin C, E, and proven antioxidants.
- Rich in omega-6 fatty acids and has vitamin E for lustrous and healthy skin.
- Supports a healthy and a balanced microflora since it has prebiotic fibers which are beneficial to gut bacteria.
- Average price: $1.93 per pound
- First ingredients: Chicken, brewer’s rice, chicken meal, yellow peas, cracked pearled barley, whole grain sorghum, egg product, chicken fat, soybean oil, brown rice, and dried beet pulp.
- Calorie content: 3740 kcal/kg, 382 kcal per 8 per cup
- Guaranteed analysis: Protein: 25.9%, fat: 16.0%, carbohydrate/NFE: 51.5%, crude fiber: 1.3%, calcium: 0.95%, phosphorus: 0.77%, potassium: 0.74%, sodium: 0.28%, magnesium: 0.098%, Vitamin C: 242ppm, vitamin E: 800 IU/kg, total omega-3 FA: 0.51%, total omega-6 FA: 4.71%, on dry matter basis.
If you have smaller dogs, the Hill’s Science Diet Adult Sensitive Stomach & Skin Small & Mini Breed Chicken Recipe Dry Dog Food is a good choice for moderate sodium restriction.
3. Purina Pro Plan FOCUS Adult Sensitive Skin & Stomach Salmon & Rice Formula Dry Dog Food
Life stage: maintenance of adult dogs.
Purina Pro Plan FOCUS Adult Sensitive Skin & Stomach Salmon & Rice Formula is a super nutritious dry dog food that will help in managing stomach and skin sensitivities.
- The food is highly digestible, delicious, and nutritious, with salmon being the first ingredient.
- Rich in antioxidants that will boost immunity as well as zinc and omega-3 fatty acids for healthy skin and coat.
- Loaded with omega-3 fatty acids that will promote mobility and healthy joint
- It doesn’t have corn, wheat, soy, poultry by-product meal, artificial flavors or colors
- Low in sodium, i.e., 50mg per 100 kcal
- Average price: $1.51 per pound
- Calorie content: 3725 kcal/kg, 429 kcal/cup
- First ingredients: Salmon, barley, ground rice, canola meal, oatmeal, fish meal (source of glucosamine), animal fat preserved with mixed-tocopherols, brewers dried yeast, salmon meal.
- Guaranteed Analysis: Crude protein (min): 26.0%, crude fat (min): 16.0%, crude fiber (max): 4.0%, moisture (max): 12.0%, linoleic acid (min): 1.5%, calcium (min): 1.0%, phosphorus (min): 0.8%, zinc (min): 180 mg/kg, selenium (min): 0.30 mg/kg, vitamin A (min): 15,000 IU/kg, vitamin E(min), 460 IU/kg, ascorbic acid* (min): 70 mg/kg, glucosamine* (min): 350 ppm: omega-6 fatty acids* (min):1.6%
If you need wet food, go for Purina ONE SmartBlend Chicken and Brown Rice Entrée Cuts in Gravy since it is also low in sodium (55 mg/100kcal) wet
4. Iams ProActive Health Adult MiniChunks Dry Dog Food
Life stage – complete and balanced for adult dogs
Iams ProActive Health Adult MiniChunks will offer real and wholesome nutrition unmatched nourishment canines to keep them healthy and energetic.
- Made with real chicken as the 1st ingredient and has eggs to provide protein for strong muscles while whole grains are a good source of energy.
- ProActive Health Adult MiniChunks has prebiotics and fiber to promote digestion, omega-6 fatty acids to support healthy skin and coat and L-Carnitine that will boost and maintain metabolism.
- Antioxidant-rich for strong immunity and has essential nutrients for a healthy heart.
- Low in sodium, standing at 55mg/100kcal.
- It comes in smaller, crunchy kibbles to make eating easier by smaller breeds as well as offering dental health benefits.
- Average price: $0.9-1.07 per pound
- First ingredients: chicken, ground whole grain corn, ground whole grain sorghum, chicken by-product meal, dried beet pulp, natural flavor, dried egg product, flaxseed
- Calorie content: 3657kcal/kg, 380kcal per cup.
- Guaranteed analysis: Protein (min): 25.0%, crude fat (min): 14.0%, crude fiber (max): 4.0%, moisture (max): 10.0%, calcium (min): 1.05%, selenium (min) 0.35 mg/kg, Vitamin E (min): 60 IU/kg, omega 6 fatty acids (min): 2.05%, L-Carnitine (min): 30 mg/kg.
If you need the 40 lbs, Amazon has the best deal.
5. Royal Canin Small Adult 8+ Dry Dog Food
If you have small senior dogs that require diets low in sodium, the Royal Canin Small Adult 8+ dry dog food is the right choice. It’s tailored to meet the needs of small breeds that have a delicate jaw and a longer lifespan.
- Highly palatable kibbles that suited for small jaws.
- It has L-carnitine that will boost metabolism, which tends to slow down as they age to help them maintain a healthy weight.
- Delicious that even finicky eaters will find hard to resist.
- It has only 65mg/100kcal of sodium
- Average price: 2.84 per pound
- First ingredients: Corn, chicken by-product meal, brewers rice, corn gluten meal, chicken fat, brown rice, brewers rice flour,
- Calorie content: 3765 kcal metabolizable energy (ME) per kg or 343 kcal ME per cup (calculated).
- Guaranteed Analysis: Crude Protein (min): 25.0%, crude fat (min): 14.0%, crude fiber (max): 3.5%, moisture (max): 10.0%, L-carnitine* (min): 35 mg/kg
Also, these Royal Canin dog foods are low in sodium (below 85 mg/kg)
- X-Small Aging 12+ Dry Adult
- Veterinary Diet Early Cardiac Dry (prescription)
- Large Dental Care Dry
- Veterinary Diet Mobility Support JS Dry
- Giant Adult Dry
- X-Small Mature 8+ Adult (dry)
- Royal Canin Large Adult 5+
- Royal Canin Small Special Dry
- Mature Consult Small Dog (dry)
- Mature Consult (dry)
- Royal Canin Mature 8+ in Gel Appetite Stimulation (wet or canned)
- Royal Canin Great Dane, Poodle, Pug, Chihuahua, Yorkshire Terrier, Cavalier King Charles, and Shih Tzu Adult Dry Dog Foods
6. Hill’s Science Diet Adult 7+ Turkey & Barley Entrée Wet Dog Food – Best Canned
Life stage: Adult dog maintenance
Hill’s Science Diet Adult 7+ Turkey & Barley Entrée is one of the best low sodium canned or wet food with only 0.22% sodium ideal for senior dogs, aged seven years and above.
- It has high-quality protein and other carefully selected ingredients to make it nutritious while ensuring your older go gets the energy they require while maintaining lean muscles.
- Easy to eat and highly digestible
- Has vitamin C, E and antioxidants proven to support a strong immunity
- Promotes healthy heart, bones, and kidney since it has a balanced mineral.
- Average price: 0.16 per oz. or 2.05per 13 oz.
First ingredients: Water, turkey, whole grain corn, cracked pearled barley, pork liver, soybean oil, dried beet pulp
- Calorie content: 356 kcal / 13 oz. (370 g) can
- Guaranteed Analysis: Protein: 17.8%, fat: 14.1%, carbohydrate/NFE: 60.6%, crude fiber: 2.3%, calcium: 0.89%, phosphorus: 0.62%, potassium: 0.80%, sodium: 0.22%, magnesium: 0.105%, Vitamin C: 103ppm, vitamin E: 810 IU/kg, total omega-3 FA: 0.54%, total omega-6 FA: 5.77%, Carnitine: 13ppm, Glucosamine 519ppm, Chondroitin Sulphate: 295 ppm, on dry matter basis.
7. Wellness Simple Limited Ingredient Diet Grain-Free Turkey & Potato Formula Dry Dog Food
Wellness uses purposefully chosen ingredients to make a delicious, nutritious dry dog food with limited ingredients, ideal for canines that suffer from food sensitivities.
- Made with a single source protein (turkey) and easy to digest carbohydrates.
- Low in sodium, i.e., 0.26%.
- It has no additives, fillers, wheat, corn soy, gluten as well as artificial flavors, colors, or preservatives.
- It has Lactobacillus plantarium, Lactobacillus casei, Enteroccus faecium, Lactobacillus acidophilus probiotics vital in promoting digestion and gut health.
- Omega-6 fatty acids will promote skin health
- Average price: $2.38 per pound
- First ingredients: Deboned turkey, turkey meal, potatoes, peas, dried ground potatoes, tomato pomace, ground flaxseed, and canola oil.
- Calorie content: 3,436 kcal/kg or 430 kcal/cup ME (metabolizable energy).
- Guaranteed analysis: Crude protein (min): 26.00%, crude fat (min): 12.00%, crude fiber (max): 5.50%, moisture (max): 11.0%, Omega-6 Fatty Acids* (min): 2.80%, Omega-3 Fatty Acid (min): 1.00%, total Lactic Acid Microorganisms* (min): 20,000,000 CFU/lb
8. Royal Canin Mature 8+ in Gel Canned Dog Food – Appetite stimulation
Life stage: Adult maintenance
Royal Canin Mature 8+ in Gel Canned Dog Food is a yummy canned dog food ideal for mature or senior dogs aged eight or more years and weighing not more than 22 pounds.
- Highly palatable, nutritious, very delicious, and appetite-stimulating.
- The food is both low in sodium (75 mg/100kcal) and low phosphorus (has restricted phosphorus to help support kidneys of your aging dog).
- Average price: $0.31 per oz. or $1.79 per 5.8 oz. can
- First ingredients: Water sufficient for processing, pork by-products, chicken, chicken liver, cornflour, rice flour, wheat gluten, powdered cellulose, dried plain beet pulp
- Calorie content: 957 Kcal of metabolizable energy (ME) per kg or 158 Kcal ME per 5.8 oz. (calculated)
- Guaranteed Analysis: Crude Protein (min): 7.5%, crude fat (min): 3.0%, crude fiber (max): 1.5%, moisture (max): 79.0%, phosphorus (max): 0.18%
9. Buffalo Blue Natural Veterinary BLUE W+U Weight Management + Urinary Care Dry Dog Food
Life stage: Adult maintenance
BLUE W+U Weight Management + Urinary Care Dry Dog Food is a formula vet exclusive diet made to meet the special dietary needs of overweight or dogs trying to lose weight. It has a perfect amount of calories, fiber, fats to help your adult dog weight loss as well as controlled minerals with maximum sodium at 0.35% to boost urinary health.
- Delicious and nutrient-packed formulation to offer superior nutrition with chicken and chicken meal are the first two ingredients.
- It supports urinary health, thanks to the controlled level with maximum amounts of sodium and magnesium.
- Grain-free has no poultry or chicken by-product meals, corn, wheat, soy, or artificial preservatives and flavors.
- It has an ideal blend of minerals, vitamins, and antioxidants that will support immunity, and ensure a healthy oxidative balance.
- Fiber-rich formula to boost satiety and support healthy digestion.
- Average price: $3.36 per pound.
- First ingredients: Deboned Chicken, Chicken Meal, Peas, Potatoes, Pea Starch, Turkey Meal, Pea Protein, Chicken Fat (preserved with Mixed Tocopherols), Tapioca Starch, Dried Tomato Pomace, and Flaxseed.
- Calorie content: 3,074 Kcals/kg, 309 Kcals/cup
- Guaranteed analysis: Protein (min): 30.0%, crude fat (min): 10.0%, crude fiber (max): 17.0%, moisture (max): 10.0%, calcium (min): 1.0%, phosphorus (min): 0.7%, magnesium (max): 0.14%, sodium (min): 0.15%, sodium (max): 0.35%, Vitamin E (min): 300 IU/kg, soluble fiber (min): 1.0%, taurine (min): 0.2%, omega 3 fatty acids (min): 0.5%, omega 6 fatty acids (min): 2.0%, L-Carnitine (min): 250 mg/kg.
Best low sodium dog treats reviews
Besides canine diets, you need to ensure any other treat or food they eat is low in sodium including Greenies Pill Pockets Tablets. Furthermore, ensure they account for NO MORE THAN 10% of your dog’s daily calorie intake. Some of the best brands in the market include:
Hill’s Science Diet Soft Savories Peanut Butter & Banana
Hill’s Science Diet Soft Savories Peanut Butter & Banana should be your first choice of low sodium (0.16%) dog treats for puppies, 9+ weeks, Adult and mature dogs.
- Easy to eat, delicious, flavorful, and tender textured treats with real peanut butter.
- Has only natural and high-quality ingredients.
- Doesn’t have any artificial flavors or preservatives
- Price: $0.64 per oz.
- First ingredients: Potatoes, Wheat Flour, Peanut Butter, Cane Molasses, Glycerin, Chicken Fat, Peanuts, Bananas, Peas, Pork Gelatin
- Calorie content: 3849 kcal/kg (27.0 kcal/treat)
- Guaranteed analysis: Protein: 17.6%, fat: 19.5%, carbohydrate/NFE: 58.9%, crude fiber: 1.2%, calcium: 0.18%, phosphorus: 0.22%, potassium: 0.69%, sodium: 0.16%, magnesium: 0.136%, vitamin E: 79 IU/kg, total omega-3 FA: 0.08%, total omega-6 FA: 1.13%, on dry matter basis.
Other low sodium treats from Hill’s
|Product Name||Sodium % on dry matter basis|
|Hill’s Grain-Free Soft-Baked Naturals Chicken & Carrots||0.10|
|Hill’s Natural Baked Light Biscuits with Real Chicken Small and Medium Dog Treat with||0.11|
|Hill’s Prescription Diet® Soft Baked Canine Treats||0.10|
|Hill’s Prescription Diet® Hypo Treats Canine||0.19|
|Hill’s Grain-Free Crunchy Naturals with Chicken & apple dog treats||0.09|
|Hill’s Prescription Diet® Canine Treats||0.11|
|Hill’s Grain-Free Soft-Baked Naturals Beef and Sweet Potatoes 0.12||0.12|
|Hill’s Grain-Free Soft-Baked Naturals Duck & Pumpkin||0.11|
|Hill’s Science Diet Soft Savories Beef & cheddar||0.24|
|Hill’s Science Diet Soft Savories Chicken & Yogurt||0.22|
Purina ALPO Variety Snaps Little Bites Dog Treats with Beef, Chicken, Liver & Lamb
Purina Alpo Variety Snaps Little Bites Dog treats are delicious and meaty tasting biscuits with chicken, beef, liver and lamb flavors that will make your canine go crazy and beg for more.
- Meaty mouthwatering chicken, lamb, liver, and beef flavors that your dog will love.
- Rich in calcium to support healthy bones and teeth.
- Doesn’t have artificial flavors
- Made in the USA
- Average price: $0.082 per oz. At Chewy and $0.19 per oz. at Amazon.com
- First ingredients: Wheat flour, beef tallow preserved with mixed tocopherols (a form of vitamin E), wheat gluten, lecithin, calcium phosphate, chicken by-product meal, animal digest (source of liver flavor), lamb meal, oat fiber.
- Calorie content: 3,708 kcal/kg, 15.6 kcal/treat
- Guaranteed Analysis: Crude protein (min): 16.0%., crude fat (min): 4.0%, crude fiber (max): 3.5%, moisture (max): 12.0%, calcium (min): 0.55%, phosphorus (min): 0.45%.
More from Purina
- Purina ALPO Variety Snaps Little Bites Dog Treats with beef, bacon, cheese & peanut butter.
- Purina Beyond All Natural Dog Biscuits Treats Chicken & Barley
- Purina Beyond All Natural Dog Biscuits Treats with Salmon & Oats
Royal Canin Original Canine Treats
Royal Canin Veterinary Diet Original Canine Dog Treats are a perfect choice of treats for any all life stages of any dog breeds or size during particular veterinary dietary management program, when on therapeutic diets.
- Highly palatable to encourage eating even by finicky dogs.
- Low in calories, making them suitable for training or everyday reward while your pet is under a therapeutic diet.
- Rich in essential omega fatty acids and vitamins to support skin and coat health as well as overall health.
- Average price: $0.51-1.87 per oz.
- First ingredients: Oat groats, brewers rice, apple pomace, natural flavors, tomato pomace, coconut oil, powdered cellulose, flaxseed.
- Calorie content: 3129 kilocalories metabolizable energy (ME) per kilogram or 4.7 kcal ME per treat.
- Guaranteed analysis: Crude protein (min): 8.0%., crude fat (min): 4.5%, crude fiber (max): 9.5%, moisture (max): 10.0%
When do dogs need restricted sodium diets?
Not every dog needs low sodium canine diets. Healthy dogs can tolerate much higher amounts than what is most commercial, and any vet or nutritionist guided homemade foods. However, the following may benefit from diets with restricted or reduced-sodium or salt.
1. Heart diseases like murmur or congestive heart failure
High sodium may cause fluid buildup that will raise blood pressure. An increase in blood pressure will make it harder (strain) your dog’s already ailing heart to pump blood effectively.
Your vet will advise you on the best low sodium dog foods for heart murmurs and congestive heart failure. In most cases, with congestive heart failure may require extreme sodium restriction.
2. High blood pressure
Since it leads to fluids accumulation, it will even increase blood pressure that will further strain and damage to the heart, kidneys, or eyes in extreme cases. Also, high blood pressure may result in progressive signs of renal failure.
3. Renal failure
If your dog is already suffering from renal failure, a high sodium diet will make it work harder to excrete the excess amount. Also, the resultant elevated blood pressure will further hamper kidney function by arteries narrower, weaker, and hardened as well as damaging nephrons (kidney filters).
Also, a high sodium level will activate the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) that will worsen chronic renal failure progression.
4. Liver diseases
If your dog has live cirrhosis and other hepatic diseases that cause in ascites, characterized by the accumulation of peritoneal cavity resulting in a swollen abdomen, excessive sodium will only worsen it. In such a case, your vet may recommend moderately low sodium diets.
High sodium is one of the risk factors of osteoporosis since it increases calcium excretion. Increased calcium excretion means more of this mineral will mobilize from bones, leading to reduced bone mineral density worsening osteoporosis.
5. Aging dogs
Aging dogs require diets lower in sodium because, as they age, they are more predisposed to renal failure, liver, heart disease, osteoporosis, and high blood pressure.
Choosing best low sodium dog foods
When selecting the best brands, look at the following:
1. Product label
Look at the product label for guaranteed analysis, nutritional adequacy statement, and ingredients.
Buy brands with high-quality meats (fish, lamb, beef, or poultry) and whole grains like brown rice, oatmeal, flaxseeds, or quinoa. It should also be highly digestible, protein-rich, and moderate in fats.
Avoid brands with artificial flavors, colors, preservatives, cheap fillers, any other harmful ingredients, including monosodium glutamate (MSG) or high levels of sodium nitrite (can be toxic in high amounts). Also, it shouldn’t have anything that causes dog sensitivities.
Finally, ensure the sodium level, and any other nutrient doesn’t go below the AAFCO recommended minimums.
2. Consider the place of manufacture
Choose brands made in the USA, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, or Western Europe as they have better quality control guidelines and strict manufacture guidelines.
3. Compare prices
Local and online stores like Amazon.com, Chewy, PetSmart, PetCareRx, Petco, do, at times, have varying prices and may offer some discounts, including free shipping for orders of a particular value. It may help you save.
Sodium restriction level in dog diets
There are four levels of sodium restrictions, i.e., mild, moderate, marked, and extreme, whose recommended amounts are as follows.
|Sodium Restriction level||Sodium amount in (mg/100kcal)||Sodium % on dry matter basis|
Depending on the underlying cause, your vet may decide on the necessary restriction level. Conditions such as congestive heart failure may require extreme restriction, depending on how serious it is.
High salt foods to avoid (sodium chloride)
Besides going for restricted sodium diets, here are some human high salt diets you must also avoid giving to your pets since they are high in salt (sodium chloride).
- Processed human foods like bacon, cured ham, ham, sausage, beef jerkies, salami, hot dogs, lunch meats, and so on.
- Table scraps (has higher amounts than what is in dog foods)
- Potato chips, popcorn, crackers, and crisps
- Condiments like teriyaki or soy source unless unsalted
- Cheese (unless labeled low sodium)
- Egg biscuits and pretzels
- Prickled foods
- Sodium chloride-containing ice-melt products
- Packaged soup
Besides these foods, ensure your dog doesn’t ingest table salt, drink salt water, eat modeling dough, rock salt (ice melts from sodium chloride), etcetera.
Homemade low sodium dog foods and improving palatability
If you prefer homemade, ensure you don’t add any salt (prepare salt-free) or make low salt dog foods. However, since salt-free diets may be less palatable (now everyone agrees to the ideal saying unlike cattle or horses, dogs don’t show preference to high salt diets), find ways to improve palatability.
For instance, try pasta, plain white or brown rice, maple syrup, home-cooked chicken, turkey, lamb, fish, or beef without salt, cooked eggs, low salt breakfast cereals, safe, fresh vegetables, and fruits.
Prescription low sodium diets
Besides what we gave you, excluding Buffalo, you will find wet and dry prescription dog foods low in sodium, especially those for managing heart problems. Hill’s, Royal Canin, and Purina have such veterinary exclusive diets.
*Not recognized as an essential nutrient by the AAFCO Dog Food Nutrient Profiles.